Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) affects women’s hormone levels and thus women’s menstrual cycle and fertility. Women mainly face this problem during their reproductive age.PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Most people do not even know that they have been suffering from PCOS until they try to conceive or they have other symptoms and they go for a health check up and accidentally find out about PCOS.
In women ovaries are one of the most vital organs responsible for ovulation and hence fertility. The main function of the pair of ovaries is production of eggs and hormones - oestrogen, progesterone. Eggs and these hormones are responsible for fertilisation as a result of which reproduction occurs in women. A regular menstrual cycle each month as a normal physiological process indicates no reproduction has occurred. Ovaries normally produce some amount of male hormones called androgens e.g. testosterone. These hormones also play a vital role in female body when secreted in normal amount. Women suffering with PCOS produce large amount of male hormones.
In a normal monthly cycle, if mature egg released by follicle gets fertilised by a sperm, pregnancy occurs. If not, then menstrual cycle or periods are triggered as a normal physiological process. Hormonal imbalance triggers further hormone changes resulting in more changes and an intricate cycle initiates. Cysts are the unruptured, immature eggs with incomplete cycle and staying in ovaries. This affects the menstrual cycle, fertility and other health issues may be experienced. Women with PCOS generally have excessive androgens interfering with normal ovulation and the follicle do not break forming cysts. Hence the eggs are not released or get ruptured eggs causing abnormal female hormone production including excess of androgen. Women who miss their normal menstrual cycle also indicates absence of ovulation for that monthly cycle. If this continues for long and frequently, ovulated eggs will keep collecting in ovaries reducing the chances of infertility. Women with PCOS definitely require medical attention particularly if they are planning to get pregnant naturally and more attention is also required while maintaining pregnancy.
Doctors do not know what exactly causes PCOS. But still there are some causes which promote this disease in female. These causes are explained below: